Sunday, 22 April 2018

Mother Earth Day 2018: Celebrating a Mother who is Not Our Mother

Many people would like to believe that Earth is their mother.

Joel Kontinen

While many people would deny that God is their Father, they are inclined to believe that Earth is their mother.

They have designated a day in her honour. Thus today many celebrate Earth Day, or, as the UN prefers to call it, the International Mother Earth Day.

Now, taking care of the environment is a laudable enterprise, but making a religion of it is certainly not.

There is a name for it: idolatry.

Man was created to worship someone bigger than himself. If he refuses to worship God, he will worship something or someone else.

It seems that the number of secular holy days has been increasing lately. In addition to Mother Earth Day, there’s Darwin Day and Carl Sagan Day, for instance.

Some would go so far as to call the mushroom their brother and demand human rights for things like glaciers and rivers.


Gibbens, Sarah. 2018. How the Environment Has Changed Since the First Earth Day. National Geographic (21 April).

Friday, 20 April 2018

Darwinist Tries in Vain to Resurrect the Bad Design Argument

No bad design. Desiree Linden won the 2018 Boston Marathon. Image courtesy of Gr5555, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

Atheistic evolutionists are fond of using theological arguments. While they don’t believe in God, they think they know how He would not have created.

They also think that they know what is bad design and what isn’t.

Richard Dawkins, for instance, has been very vocal with his view of the backward wired retina, which actually happens to be an illustration of very good design.

It seems that smart is the adjective the best describes our eyes.

Another failed Darwinian argument is that our genome is full of junk, of both DNA and RNA.

And the vestigial organ argument has fared even worse.

However, recently biologist Steve Laufmann tried to resurrect some failed evolutionary arguments that he calls design glitches.

In addition to the above he also mentioned our supposedly weak knees, which happens to be a bizarre claim, given that humans can run a marathon, provided they train sufficiently for it.


Laufmann, Steve. 2018. Your “Botched Body”: Bad Design or Bad Logic? Evolution News & Science Today (18 April).

Lents, Nathan H. 2018. The Botch of the Human Body. Wall Street Journal (13 April).

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

Cooling Lava Probably Formed Giant’s Causeway during Noah’s Flood

Image courtesy of Chmee2, CC BY 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Giant’s Causeway is a rock structure in Northern Ireland that is composed of 40,000 basalt columns touching each other.

It has been the subject of both legends and naturalistic speculations.

New research published in the journal Nature Communications suggests the columns formed when magma rock cooled quickly some “50–60 million years ago.”

The explanation might well be correct, but the timing is off by a factor of 10,000.

The global flood that devastated the Earth during Noah’s day roughly 4,500 years ago is a more plausible time. The deluge was most probably accompanied by volcanic eruptions.

The Book of Genesis describes the true history of ancient times.


Dovey, Dana. 2018. 'Giant's causeway' mysterious Irish rock structure was formed by ancient volcanoes. Newsweek (16 April).

Monday, 16 April 2018

Clever Eucalyptus Sweats to Keep Cool

Some trees use a clever strategy to keep cool.

Joel Kontinen

Trees are much more sophisticated than we would expect. They communicate with each other and sleep at night.

They have their own wood wide web (www) through which they share information.

Flowering plants are almost as clever; they have their e-mail system through which they engage in shoot to root communication.

And a recent study suggests that at least one eucalyptus species “sweats” to keep cool during heatwaves.

Ecologist John Drake at the S.U.N.Y. College of Environmental Science and Forestry and colleagues reported on this unexpected behaviour in the journal Global Change Biology.

High temperatures are thought to reduce photosynthesis, but instead of overheating these trees thrived although the temperature rose to 44 degrees Celsius (111 Fahrenheit).

We can’t thank dumb Darwinian mechanisms for these intelligent approaches.


Saplakoglu, Yasemin. 2018. Trees Sweat to Keep Cool. Scientific American (May 2018).

Saturday, 14 April 2018

Elon Musk Warns of an Immortal AI Dictator

As an idea, AI is not a recent invention. Image courtesy of Sybil Tawse, from Stories of Gods and Heroes (1920) by Thomas Bulfinch. Public Domain.

Joel Kontinen

Elon Musk used to team up with Stephen Hawking to warn of the dangers of artificial intelligence that might turn into a disaster for humans.

Not so long ago he said that AI was a bigger threat than North Korea.

Musk shares his fears in a new AI documentary called Do You Trust This Computer?

He is afraid that in contrast to human dictators – who will eventually die – it would be practically impossible to get rid of an AI dictator:

"At least when there's an evil dictator, that human is going to die,” Live Science quotes Musk as saying, "But for an AI there would be no death. It would live forever, and then you'd have an immortal dictator, from which we could never escape."

However, the second law of thermodynamics practically guarantees that nothing we make will last forever, but it will break down – sooner or later.

The only thing that remains is the Bible, the Word of God. And it definitely rules out an immortal AI dictator.


Specktor, Brandon. 2018. Elon Musk Worries That AI Research Will Create an 'Immortal Dictator'. Live Science (8 April).

Thursday, 12 April 2018

ISIS Dug Tunnels That Confirm Biblical History

Sennacherib. Image courtesy of Timo Roller, CC BY 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

In the Old Testament book of Genesis Joseph tells his brothers: "As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good in order to bring about this present result.” (50:20, NASB).

It seems that something similar has happened in Iraq:

After ISIS fighters captured Mosul and some other areas in Iraq in 2014, they destroyed several valuable archaeological sites, but they also dug tunnels in the hope that they could find buried treasures or archaeologically valuable artifacts with which they could finance their operations.

They discovered an Assyrian palace in the biblical city of Nineveh and found ancient inscriptions that verify the historicity of several Assyrian kings mentioned in the Old Testament, such as Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal (also known as Osnapper).

Other inscriptions verify the historicity of the city of Calah mentioned in Genesis 10:11-12 and confirm the way the Assyrians methodology of resettled captive peoples (see Ezra 4:10).

Should we be surprised?

No, the Bible describes the lives of real people, who lived at particular places at a particular time in history.


Earls, Aaron. 2018. ISIS Accidentally Corroborates the Bible. Facts & Trends (19 March).

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

Fractals in Nature Defy Darwinian Assumptions

Baobabs, like other trees, follow a sophisticated mathematical formula. Image courtesy of Fox-Talbot, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

In his book River Out of Eden, Richard Dawkins wrote: "The universe we observe has precisely the properties we should expect if there is, at bottom, no design, no purpose, no evil and no good.”

But is this really so?

It is practically impossible to ignore the fine tuning that we see all around us, from the minuscule to the really huge.

It comes in many forms, for instance in Fibonacci numbers and fractals.

Polish mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot (1924–2010) coined the term fractal in 1975.

Geometric shapes known as Mandelbrot sets are everywhere in nature, and what is special about them is that many of them repeat themselves on a smaller scale, and then even smaller, often producing a soothing effect.

This does not look like the cold, callous Darwinian world. The real world is full of beauty, regardless of where we look.


Dawkins, Richard. 1999.River Out of Eden. London: Phoenix.

Lisle, Jason. 2007. Fractals: Hidden Beauty Revealed in Mathematics. Answers 2 (1), 52–55.

Sunday, 8 April 2018

Tiny “Alien” Fish Is Evidence for Diversity in Creation

Lubricogobius exiguus. Image courtesy of Izuzuki, CC BY-SA 2.5.

Joel Kontinen

The yellow pygmy goby (Lubricogobius exiguus) is tiny. Measuring 2 centimetres and sporting almost hypnotic emerald eyes, it could well be an alien.

But it isn’t. It lives in the Pacific Ocean and is evidence for the wonderful diversity in God’s creation in which we often see great beauty – even below the surface.


Le Page, Michael. 2018. The hypnotic face and emerald eyes of the yellow pygmy goby. New Scientist (27 March).

Friday, 6 April 2018

Amazingly Strong Eggshells Defy Darwinian Explanations

It’s an elegantly designed temporary home. Image courtesy of KDS4444, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

Chicken eggs are elegantly designed temporary homes. They protect the inhabitants (if we can call them that) from harm and yet let them breath.

They also seem to be able to tell the birdling when it’s time to set out into the wider world.

Eggs have three main layers. A new study published in the journal Science Advances suggests that the eggshells’ nanostructure “appears to play a key role in the strength of the shell.”

As quoted in The Guardian, study co-author Professor Marc McKee (McGill University in Canada) says that eggshells, although thin, can be harder than some metals.

But when the time is right, the chick can crack the shell open.

The almost magical ingredient is a protein called osteopontin. The hardness of the shell depends on the distribution of osteopontin in the various layers of the eggshell.

Unfortunately, Professor McKee fails to give credit to whom credit is due:

When you think about it, we should be making materials that are inspired by nature and by biology because, boy, it is really hard to beat hundreds of millions of years of evolution in perfecting something.”

The problem with Darwinian mechanisms is that they are incapable of top-down planning that is seen everywhere in creation.


Davis, Nicola. 2018. Scientists solve eggshell mystery of how chicks hatch. The Guardian (30 March).

Wednesday, 4 April 2018

Diatoms Are a Darwinian Dilemma

Image courtesy of Ernst Haeckel, from Kunstformen der Natur (1904), plate 71: Stephoidea, Public domain.

Joel Kontinen

Diatoms are an evolutionary mystery. Darwinians believe that these one-celled pretty creatures have populated the oceans and seas for at least “100 million” years.

They are willing to acknowledge that diatoms appear to be designed, but they chalk this design up to evolution.

These algae are effective, producing 20–30% of all oxygen through photosynthesis. And, as there are some 100,000 species of these industrious workers, we can enjoy all the oxygen we need.

In a paper published in the journal Scientific Reports, eight researchers admit that they don’t know how diatoms could have evolved. The best they can come up with is convergent evolution, which is Darwin-speak for we haven’t a clue.


Aguirre, Luis Ever et al. 2018. Diatom frustules protect DNA from ultraviolet light. Scientific Reports 8:5138. (23 March).

Monday, 2 April 2018

T. rex, Turtle, Fish and Mammal in Same Fossil Graveyard

Once again: dinosaurs, fish and a mammal were found in the same fossil graveyard.

Joel Kontinen

The discovery of an “elementary school age” T. rex in Montana's famous Hell Creek formation is making waves in the Darwinian community.

What is not making as big waves is the manner in which the tiny dino and several other animals met their end.

David Burnham, a preparator of vertebrate paleontology at the Biodiversity Institute, told Live Science that they died in a "quick, cataclysmic event."

But instead of occurring 67 million years ago, the cataclysm most probably took place some 4,500 years ago during the year-long global flood described in Genesis.

It would otherwise be difficult – if not impossible – to explain why a turtle, fish, dinosaurs and a placental mammal would end up in the same fossil graveyard.


Geggel, Laura. 2018. This Elementary-School-Age T. Rex Is a '1 in 100 Million' Discovery. Live Science (30 March).

Saturday, 31 March 2018

Ancient Writers Were Unable to Deny the Historicity of Jesus

Jesus’ tomb is still empty. Image courtesy of Phillip Benshmuel, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

There is strong evidence for the historicity of Jesus. Of non-biblical 1st and 2nd century writers, Josephus (37–100), Tacitus (55–117), Suestonius (69–140), Plinius the Younger (ca. 61–113), Lukianos (125–190), Celsus and Mara bar Serapion either mention Him by name or refer to His crucifixion.

Even those who were antagonistic towards Christianity were unable to deny that He was a real historical person though they might have doubted His divinity.

Writing in Biblical Archaeology Review, Associate Professor Lawrence Mykytiuk discusses 1st and 2nd century non-biblical authors who wrote about or referred to Jesus or His followers. “As far as we know, no ancient person ever seriously argued that Jesus did not exist,” he concludes.

Quoting New Testament Professor Robert Van Voorst, he says,”No pagans and Jews who opposed Christianity denied Jesus’ historicity or even questioned it.”

Professor Van Voorst went on to say, “If anyone in the ancient world had a reason to dislike the Christian faith, it was the rabbis. To argue successfully that Jesus never existed but was a creation of early Christians would have been the most effective polemic against Christianity … [Yet] all Jewish sources treated Jesus as a fully historical person … The rabbis … used the real events of Jesus’ life against him.”

So, if someone comes up with a conspiracy theory that denies the historicity of Jesus or the resurrection, we know it is a fable.

The real Jesus lived on Earth for a little while, suffered for our sins, and rose from the dead.

The empty tomb reminds us that the Gospels recount real history.


Mykytiuk, Lawrence. 2015. Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible. Biblical Archaeology Review 41 (1), 44–51, 76.

Thursday, 29 March 2018

Pluto’s Youthful Looks Continue to Puzzle Scientists

Pluto looks young. Image courtesy of NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI.

Joel Kontinen

When NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft flew past Pluto in July 2015, scientists were expecting to see a dwarf planet that looked old and its largest moon Charon to be full of impact craters.

However, what they saw blew their socks off, as NASA researcher Cathy Olkin put it in a New Horizons press conference.

Pluto looked far too young to fit into a 4.6 billion year old universe, and so did Charon.

Subsequent images sent by New Horizons showed more evidence for youth.

Pluto is too small to generate heat and too far away from the Sun to benefit from solar energy, but it is geologically active.

Believers in deep time have had a hard time figuring out why Pluto looks youthful. The latest explanation features flowing nitrogen ice that could be “acting as its fountain of youth.”

Pluto is not the only dwarf planet that looks younger than expected.

Ceres is another great puzzle for long-agers.

Jupiter’s moons Io and Europa also look too young.

The obvious solution: They are.


Crane, Leah. 2018. Gooey nitrogen ice may make Pluto’s crater-free heart look young. New Scientist (27 March).

Tuesday, 27 March 2018

Flat-Earther Makes It to Space (Sort of) and Back

Logo of the Flat Earth Society. Image courtesy of Blanko, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

After two failed attempts, self-made rocket builder Mike Hughes finally managed to take to the skies in his space vehicle.

He reached an altitude of 572 metres (1,875 feet) above the Mojave Desert in California before parachuting to the earth.

Mr. Hughes believes the earth is flat, and his motive in blasting to the skies was to prove that he was right.

That was something he was unable to do this time, so he hopes to build a more powerful rocked that would carry him to an altitude of 110 kilometres (68 miles).

He hopes to prove his thesis by taking high-altitude photographs.

However, NASA beat him by 50 years. The pictures the Apollo 8 astronauts took while orbiting the Moon show that the Earth is round.

The earthrise photos tell the same story.

The modern flat earth myth probably hails from Washington Irving’s (1783–1859) fictional biography of Christopher Columbus. Obviously, some seamen were afraid of falling over the earth’s edge.

However, there never was a time in Medieval Europe when most people believed our planet was flat.

Coins and symbols made in the Holy Roman Empire depicted a round earth, and so did Medieval scholars.


Bryner, Jeanna. 2018. Flat-Earther Blasts Himself into the Sky on Homemade Rocket (and He Survives). Live Science (25 March).

Sunday, 25 March 2018

Stonehenge, Pyramids and Sophisticated Devices Defy Darwinian Views of Ancient Man

Could there be a link between Stonehenge and ancient astronomy? Image courtesy of Andrew Dunn, CC BY-SA 2.0.

Joel Kontinen

Many people tend to think that ancient men could not have been as clever as we are. This is in keeping with the Darwinian idea that humans evolved very gradually from ape-like creatures and learning was a slow hit-or-miss affair. They were not expected to accomplish much intellectually.

However, the pyramids, Stonehenge and other ancient monuments and devices tell an entirely different kind of story.

In 2016 Science reported on the work of Mathieu Ossendrijver of Humboldt University in Berlin, who examined Babylonian clay tablets hailing from 350 BC to 50 BC.

Babylonian astronomers “also employed sophisticated geometric methods that foreshadow the development of calculus. Historians had thought such techniques did not emerge until more than 1400 years later, in 14th century Europe.”

Dr. Ossendrijver also published a report in Science entitled The Ancient Babylonian astronomers calculated Jupiter’s position from the area under a time-velocity graph.

The 2000-year old Antikythera Mechanism likewise challenges our views of ancient man. It is a multi-purpose calendar and computer. It could, among other things, be used to predict astronomical events such as solar eclipses and the timing of the Ancient Olympic Games.

A recent article in The Conversation examines the correlation of stars and ancient monuments and concludes that there might indeed be a link, but we cannot be sure of this.

Anyhow, even entirely oral cultures could have prodigious knowledge about constellations and stars.

In 2016 New Scientist wrote about Bill Yidumduma Harney, an Aboriginal Australian who could identify 3,000 stars in the night sky. How many astronomy professors could beat him in that game?


Brown, Daniel. 2018. From the pyramids to Stonehenge – were prehistoric people astronomers? The Conversation (12 March).

Cowen, Ron. 2016. Math whizzes of ancient Babylon figured out forerunner of calculus. Science (28 January).

Saturday, 24 March 2018

Clever (Talking?) Trees Defy Darwinian Expectations

Darwin was totally ignorant of the surprisingly elegant ways that trees communicate with each other.

Joel Kontinen

Do Trees Talk to Each Other? Peter Wohlleben is a German forester who believes that they do.

Recent years have brought about amazing discoveries about trees and other plants.

We now know that trees sleep at night.

They have their own wood wide web (www) through which they share information.

Flowering plants are almost as clever; they have their e-mail system through which they engage in shoot to root communication.

In his book The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate, originally published in German as Das geheime Leben der Bäume, Peter Wohlleben discusses the amazingly communal life of trees.

Entering his world of trees is like stepping into a fairy tale where trees are very much alive.

Smithsonian Magazine gives us a hint of what is going on:

The trees have become vibrantly alive and charged with wonder. They’re communicating with one another, for starters. They’re involved in tremendous struggles and death-defying dramas. To reach enormousness, they depend on a complicated web of relationships, alliances and kinship networks.

Wise old mother trees feed their saplings with liquid sugar and warn the neighbors when danger approaches. Reckless youngsters take foolhardy risks with leaf-shedding, light-chasing and excessive drinking, and usually pay with their lives. Crown princes wait for the old monarchs to fall, so they can take their place in the full glory of sunlight. It’s all happening in the ultra-slow motion that is tree time, so that what we see is a freeze-frame of the action.

This is as far as one could get from the Darwinian world in which trees are “striving, disconnected loners, competing for water, nutrients and sunlight, with the winners shading out the losers and sucking them dry.”

Instead of competing, trees form alliances, even with other species.

Smithsonian Magazine tries in vain to preserve at least a tweeny weeny bit of evolution, but the message emanating from the woods is clear: Darwin’s time has gone. Intelligent design explains tree sociology (if we can call it that) much better.


Grant, Richard. 2018. Do Trees Talk to Each Other? Smithsonian Magazine. (March).

Thursday, 22 March 2018

Evolution Can Explain Cancer But Hardly Anything Else

Charles Darwin’s famous “I Think” sketch, 1837. Public domain. It might explain cancer but hardly anything else.

Joel Kontinen

Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution is the title on an essay Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900–1975) wrote for the American Biology Teacher magazine in 1973.

Recently, Mel Greaves, who seems to be a firm believer in Darwinian medicine, wrote an article entitled Nothing in cancer makes sense except…

The name is no accident, as Greaves references Dobzhansky’s essay and tries to persuade his readers that evolution can explain cancer.

It is perhaps a very fitting meaning of evolution, as even in theory, Darwinism can only break things and never make them.

Our cells have several strategies for getting rid of rogue or unwanted growth that could cause cancer, for instance apoptosis or programmed cell death and phagocytosis or the process of self-eating, where cells called macrophages or ‘big eaters’ (μακρος, makros ‘large’ and φαγειν. phagein ‘eat’) devour damaged cells.

These mechanisms are the opposite of Darwinian evolution.

This is not the first time Darwinists invoke cancer as an explanation for evolution.


Greaves, Mel et al. 2018. Nothing in cancer makes sense except… BMC Biology201816:22 (21 February).

Monday, 19 March 2018

Ancient Deer Turned into a Whale in New Darwinian Tale

Some think Ambulocetus looked like this. Image courtesy of Nobu Tamura, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

Darwinian stories can be both fascinating and bizarre – at the very same time.

Marine creatures left the sea because they saw food on land. Now New Scientist is telling us that land creatures returned to the sea as the shallow waters were so full of food.

This time it was supposed to be a deer that metamorphosed into a whale.

Thus, in a typical Darwinian scenario, the poor creatures kept on going back and forth until they found their preferred element.

In the early 1980s, evolutionists announced the discovery of Pakicetus, the grandmother of all marine whales, with great fanfare.

They believe that it lived ”52 million years” ago.

A diving Pakicetus made it to the cover of Science.

Later, after they found more bones, they had to acknowledge that Pakicetus was a land animal.

Then in 2011, researchers found a whale jawbone in Antarctica. “Dated” at 49 million years, it almost as old as its assumed land-loving ancestor, leaving far too little time for evolution.

There are other difficulties as well.

Mathematician and philosopher Dr. David Berlinski calculated that a cow-like creature living on dry land would have needed at least 50, 000 morphological changes for a move to the sea.

From skin to the breathing apparatus, almost everything had to be changed if the cow wanted to stay alive in its new watery environment.

Like transforming a car into a submarine, it would have needed an enormous amount of changes, making the entire scenario impossible.


Barras, Colin. 2018. Why ancient deer returned to the sea and became whales. New Scientist (19 March).

Sunday, 18 March 2018

Relicts of Noah’s Flood and the Ice Age in Sahara

The Sahara was once wetter. Image courtesy of Luca Galuzzi, CC BY-SA 2.5.

Joel Kontinen

The Sahara desert was once a lot wetter place than it is today (although some parts got a brief snow cover recently).

It is very likely that this wet epoch followed Noah’s Flood, which obviously left the ground wetter than it is now, and the ice age that followed would also have kept moisture in the ground.

A paper published in the journal Nature Plants written by researchers from the universities of Huddersfield, Rome and Modena & Reggio Emilia finds evidence for cultivating and storing cereals.

According to Science Daily, “a chemical analysis of pottery from the site demonstrates that cereal soup and cheese were being produced.”

They believe that this was at a time (ca. 8,000 BC) when humans were supposed to be hunter-gatherers. The timing is way off by 4,000 years or so.

The Sahara also holds – or has held – other relics from the Flood, such as an imposing natural archway and a catfish fossil.


University of Huddersfield. 2018. The absence of ants: Entomologist confirms first Saharan farming 10,000 years ago. Science Daily (16 March).

Friday, 16 March 2018

“Sea Monster” Fossil Shows Darwin-Defying Diversity in Cambrian Era Brains

Kerygmachela kierkegaardi might have looked like this. Image courtesy of Apokryltaros, CC BY 2.5.

Joel Kontinen

For Charles Darwin, the sudden appearance of complex animals in the Cambrian was a huge dilemma.

And since then, the situation has become even worse. In 2012 University of Bath evolutionary biologist Matthew Wills acknowledged that Cambrian fossils “can cause a real headache for evolutionary biologists.”

Cambrian creatures tend to be far too complex for evolution.

Some, like Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis, have a very complex brain. Science reported that a shrimp-like creature dubbed Fuxianhuia protensa presumably did a fair amount of thinking.”

We can also see Darwin-defying diversity in Cambrian creatures.

Kerygmachela kierkegaardi is a 25 cm (10 in.) long “sea monster” found in Greenland.

Assumed to be “520 million years” old, it is “a bizarre, oval-shaped water beast that had two long appendages on its head, 11 swimming flaps on each side and a skinny tail,” Live Science quotes palaeontologist Jakob Vinther as saying.

The researchers also found 15 fossilized brains, which differed considerably from other Cambrian Era brains by being slightly less complex:

An anatomical analysis showed that K. kierkegaardi's brain innervated the creature's large eyes and the frontal appendages it used to grasp its tasty victims, the researchers said.”

Darwinians could never have expected to see such diversity in Cambrian animals.


Geggel, Laura. 2018. Fossilized Brains of Ancient 'Sea Monster' Discovered in Greenland. Live Science. (15 March).

Wednesday, 14 March 2018

Don’t Expect to Find Little Green Men on New Exoplanet K2-155d

Kepler found some new exoplanets. Image courtesy of NASA Ames/ W Stenzel, Public Domain.

Joel Kontinen

This time there’s less fanfare and speculation. Two papers published in the Astronomical Journal introduce us to 15 new exoplanets some 200 light years from us.

The post promising candidate is K2-155d that orbits a bright red dwarf. It obviously has a radius 1.6 times that of Earth’s.

Researchers think that K2-155d “could be a super-Earth located within the habitable zone,” as an article in International Business Times put it.

Once again, they are speculating about water, but there’s a big hitch.

" ‘In our simulations, the atmosphere and the composition of the planet were assumed to be Earth-like, and there's no guarantee that this is the case,’ Teruyuki Hirano, the lead researcher of the new study, from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, said in a statement.”

And then come the problems: Dwarf stars tend to be unstable and bombard their planets with intense solar flares.

These planets are probably tidally locked like Mercury in our solar system, with the same side always facing its sun.

It is very likely that this applies to the Trappist-1 system and to Proxima-b, and now we’ll probably have to add K2-155d to the list of has-beens.

What is more, getting from being habitable to actually having life is an enormous leap that naturalistic processes cannot pull off.

Life, as Louis Pasteur showed, only comes from life.


Ashok, India Aishani. 2018. 15 New Exoplanets Discovered Near Solar System, One Could Have Liquid Water. International Business Times (3 March).

Monday, 12 March 2018

Darwinian Psychologist Wants to Create Human-Chimp Hybrids

Image courtesy of Delphine Bruyere, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Human exceptionalism is a Darwinian enigma, but they are very reluctant to give up the notion that we are mere animals.

At times, they use bizarre means in trying to convince others of our assumed apehood.

Recently, an outlandish rumour surfaced. It claimed that in the 1920s a female chimpanzee was supposedly inseminated with human semen and gave birth to a “humanzee” in a US research centre that was established in the 1930s.

Russian biologist Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov (1870 –1932) also attempted to produce a human-chimp hybrid, but his experiments failed., as such a hybrid is biologically impossible.

Now, University of Washington psychology professor emeritus David P. Barash wants to use the gene-editing CRISPR technology to create human–chimp hybrid.

Barash hates Christianity and aims to show that humans are nothing more than apes though all the evidence points to creation.

Why, then, are some hybrids possible?

While lions and tigers are currently classified as different species, they belong to the same Genesis kind, and can thus produce ligers.

The same applies to zonkeys (donkey + zebra), geeps (goat + sheep) and grolars (grizzly bear + polar bear).

These hybrids show us exactly the opposite of what Prof. Barash wants us to believe. They confirm the Genesis after its kind principle


Smith, Wesley J. 2018. Darwinist David Barash Wants Us to Create “Humanzees”. Evolution News & Science Today. (9 March).

Saturday, 10 March 2018

Earth’s Magnetic Field Is Still Decaying

Image courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, CC BY-SA 2.0.

Joel Kontinen

For the past 160 years, the strength of the magnetic field has been decreasing at an alarming rate,” says a press release issued by the University. of Rochester.

University of Rochester professor John Tarduno and colleagues went to southern Africa to examine an area called known as the South Atlantic Anomaly.

They think that something spectacular is happening there.

The magnetic field is generated by swirling, liquid iron in Earth’s outer core. It is here, roughly 1800 miles beneath the African continent, that a special feature exists. Seismological data has revealed a denser region deep beneath southern Africa called the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province. The region is located right above the boundary between the hot liquid outer core and the stiffer, cooler mantle. Sitting on top of the liquid outer core, it may sink slightly, disturbing the flow of iron and ultimately affecting Earth’s magnetic field.

Earth’s magnetic field protects us from radiation coming from the Sun

Research has shown that Earth had a magnetic field from the beginning.
The weakening of the magnetic field is a huge problem for those who believe in billions of years, so they have to believe that it is “a recurrent anomaly” and invoke magnetic reversals.

However, there is no known mechanism that could cause such reversals.


University of Rochester. 2018. New data helps explain recent fluctuations in Earth’s magnetic field (27 February).

Thursday, 8 March 2018

Singing Blue Whales Defy Darwinian Explanations

Blue whale mother and calf. Image courtesy of Andreas Tille, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

Birds are not the only animals that like to sing. At least one fish species can also sing.

And there’s more. Natural Geographic reports on the singing skills of blue whales:

“The biggest animal to ever live is also the loudest, and it likes to sing at sunset, babble into the night, talk quietly with those nearby, and shout to colleagues 60 miles away.”

Previously. little was known about their singing, Now, “In the first effort of its kind, Ana Širović, an oceanographer at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, and her team scoured a collection of more than 4,500 recordings of blue whale sounds taken from underwater microphones at over a dozen locations over 14 years, from 2002 to 2016, in southern California. The researchers then synced the recordings with the movements of 121 whales that had been tagged with suction-cup trackers. What they learned challenged many assumptions about these noisy beasts.”

They discovered that males did most of the singing.

It’s practically impossible to invoke evolution in explaining why three very different kinds of animals – birds, fish and marine mammals – like to sing.

Convergent evolution would not be a viable explanation.


Welch, Craig. 2018. Elusive Blue Whale Behavior Revealed by Their Songs. National Geographic (15 February).

Tuesday, 6 March 2018

Cambrian Shrimp Cared for its Offspring

Fuxianhuia protensa. Image courtesy of Nobu Tamura, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

A Cambrian shrimp “dated” at 520 million years cared for its offspring, a recently discovered fossil shows.

As Darwinians want to see some evolution here. they prefer to call Fuxianhuia protensa a shrimp-like creature.

Evolution cannot explain parental care, which fits in well with the creation model.

It seems that God gave animal mothers the instinct to care for their young.

The assumed Cambrian Era was a big dilemma for Darwin.

Recent discoveries, including soft tissues, have made it an even bigger headache for evolutionists.


Fox-Skelly, Jasmin. 2018. Fossil shows a mother caring for her young 520 million years ago. New Scientist (5 March).

Sunday, 4 March 2018

Owls, Penguins and Kingfishers Inspire Quieter and More Efficient Bullet Trains

Bullet trains in Japan. Image courtesy of DAMASA, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Design in nature is so obvious that it’s practically impossible to deny it.

The University of Guelph newsletter recounts how Japanese engineers solved the sonic boom problem caused by high-speed bullet trains that could reach a speed of 270 km /hour (170 mph).

But every time the train came out of a tunnel it caused a sonic boom that could be heard from 400 metres away.

It needed to be resigned. The research team solved the problem by drawing inspiration from the owl’s feather, the penguin’s belly and the kingfisher’s nose.

The resigned was ”10 per cent faster, used 15 per cent less electricity and travelled under the noise limit in residential areas.

Unfortunately, writer Vicky Lin attributes the amazing design found in birds to Darwinian evolution, concluding: “Evolution has done a lot of research for us.

However, Darwinian processes are blind. They can’t design anything. Nature abounds with intelligent solutions that defy evolutionary explanations. (See examples here, here, here, here and here.).

“For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made” (Romans 1:20, NIV).


Lin, Vicky. 2018. Sustainability solutions and technological innovations are regularly found in nature, writes Vicky Lin. Guelph Mercury (19 February).

Friday, 2 March 2018

Weird Supercreature Found in Japan

The tardigrade looks a bit like a bear. Image courtesy of E. Schokraie, U. Warnken, A. Hotz-Wagenblatt, MA. Grohme, S. Hengherr, et al. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state. PLoS ONE 7(9): e45682 (2012). Creative Commons (CC BY 2.5).

Joel Kontinen

Tardigrades might be tiny – only 0.5 mm (0.020 in) long – but they are amazingly tough.

They are already found in the Cambrian strata “530 million years” ago, which means that evolutionists see them as one of the oldest kinds of living fossils.

Known as water bears for their somewhat ursine appearance, they seem to thrive in extreme conditions, both cold ( -272 °C or -458 °F) and hot (150 °C or 300 °F). Moreover, they can fast ten years without even taking in water, and still survive.

There’s more. A tardigrade found by Japanese scientists in the Antarctic in 1983 was defrosted and it gave birth after being frozen for 30 years.

Recently, a new tardigrade species was found in the parking lot of an apartment building in Japan. Dubbed Macrobiotus shonaicus, it is perhaps even weirder than others.

Live Science points out a bizarre trait in this sturdy creature:

Perhaps the weirdest aspect of M. shonaicus, though, is its eggs. The spherical eggs are studded with miniscule, chalice-shaped protrusions, each of which is topped with a ring of delicate, noodle-like filaments. These features might help the egg attach to the surface where it is laid, [tardigrade expert Kazuharu] Arakawa said. “

The tardigrade’s traits speak of a Designer who skilfully made every living creature.


Pappas, Stephanie. 2018. An Even-Weirder-Than-Usual Tardigrade Just Turned Up in a Parking Lot. Live Science (28 February).

Wednesday, 28 February 2018

Leaf Beetles Avoid Predators by Mimicking Their Own Bite Marks

Leaf beetles. Image courtesy of Charlesjsharp, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Some animals are masters of camouflage. The filefish can vanish from sight in two minutes. The octopus can change its shape and colour almost instantly.

Its logical to conclude that even in the post-Fall world, God still cares for animals and has given them the skills to hide from predators.

Recent research shows that leaf beetles can mimic their own bite marks they make while munching on leaves and thus avoid being eaten.

Beetles are living fossils that haven’t changed in aeons.

And the bombardier beetle has a clever strategy that prevents hungry predators from having it for lunch.


Ceurstemont, Sandrine. 2018. Beetles hide by looking like the bite marks they make on leaves. New Scientist (27 February).

Monday, 26 February 2018

50-Year Old UFO Parts Turn Up in the London Science Museum

Image courtesy of Phylyp, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

A small (45-cm or 18-inch) metal saucer made headlines in the U.K. press in 1957 after it was found in Silpho Moor near Scarborough in Yorkshire.

It was cut into pieces and examined – and then lost for 50 years. It recently turned up in the London Science Museum.

This saucer-like object has a bizarre new age connection. The Yorkshire Post reported on 8 February 1957 that its copper bottom was covered in hieroglyphics.

According to Live Science,

The Silpho Moor saucer also contained a small book, the Post reported, covered in more hieroglyphics, which a Scarborough café owner claimed to decipher as a warning from an alien named Ullo about atomic war: ‘You will improve or disappear.’

Metallurgists and other experts who studied the Silpho Moor object determined that it had no special properties and had never been to outer space, the Post reported, a journey that leaves telltale signatures in metal

UFOs and aliens tend to make headlines every now and then.

UFOs seem to have an evolution connection as well.

If life evolved here, it should also have evolved elsewhere, they seem to believe.

Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell believes in UFOs, and the SETI folks are searching for alien life everywhere.

Some evolutionists speculate what aliens might look like , others are concerned with how to communicate with them, and some, like professor Stephen Hawking, are afraid of them.

Unfortunately (for them, that is), all alleged signals have been false alarms.

In other words, there is no proof of extraterrestrial life or evolution anywhere.


Letzter, Rafi. 2018. Bits of Famous, Lost (and Fake) 'Flying Saucer' Turn Up in British Science Museum. Live Science (16 February).

Friday, 23 February 2018

Seal of Prophet Isaiah Found in Jerusalem?

The prophet Isaiah. Image courtesy of the Providence Lithograph Company, Public domain.

Joel Kontinen

Hebrew University archaeologist Dr. Eilat Mazar has discovered a bulla or clay seal impression that has an inscription written with First Temple Hebrew letters.

The text l’Yesha’yah[u] or ‘Belonging to Isaiah’ is probably the first extrabiblical proof of the historicity of the Old Testament prophet Isaiah.

Below this text is “the partial word nvy, which presumably spells out ‘prophet’.”

However, Dr. Mazar explains that as “the bulla has been slightly damaged at the end of the word nvy, it is not known if it originally ended with the Hebrew letter aleph, which would have resulted in the Hebrew word for ‘prophet’ and would have definitively identified the seal as the signature of the prophet Isaiah.”

The First Temple Era lasted from the inauguration of the temple in ca. 1006 BC to its destruction in 586 BC. Isaiah lived from ca 765 BC to ca 695 BC, which means that the bulla was written during the prophet’s lifetime.

Mazar’s team found the bulla only three metres (10 feet) away from the place in Jerusalem where they in 2015 unearthed a bulla with the inscription “of King Hezekiah of Judah”.

The Old Testament shows that Hezekiah often relied on Isaiah’s advice in religious and political affairs, so it would be logical to find the prophet’s bulla near to his.

Time and again, archaeology has confirmed that the Bible describes ancient history and culture accurately.

We now have archaeological evidence for the United Monarchy of David and Solomon and biblically sound dates for the Gihon Tower in Jerusalem, for instance.

The Bible recounts real events, real people and even real catastrophes, such as earthquakes.


Borschel-Dan, Amanda. 2018. In find of biblical proportions, seal of Prophet Isaiah said found in Jerusalem. Times of Israel (22 February).

Wednesday, 21 February 2018

Scientific American’s Unscientific Musings on Alien Life

Alien spaceship? Image courtesy of the Ministry of Communications of the USSR. Design: Andrey Sokolov. Scanned by Dmitry Ivanov.

Joel Kontinen

October 30, 1938 brought panic to the streets of New York. Orson Welles had adapted H. G. Wells’ science fiction novel The War of the Worlds for radio, and many listeners thought they were hearing a live broadcast on a Martian invasion.

At the time, people believed that Mars was inhabited by intelligent beings who had constructed a massive canal network that kept the red planet habitable.

Many people, including Stephen Hawking, are still fearful of big bad aliens.

Scientific American speculates on how we might react to the discovery of alien life. In an article awash with evolutionary assumptions, author Yasemin Saplakoglu quotes some true believers, including SETI’s Seth Shostak:

Perhaps it might make sense for our brains—tuned by millions of years of evolution to be wary of predators—to freak out over immensely powerful alien beings arriving on our cosmic doorstep from parts unknown.”

Saplakoglu also discusses the views of neuroscientist Cornelius Gross:

Gross thinks we would probably first try to understand it, a reaction that can be interpreted as yet another ancient, evolutionarily sculpted defense system aimed at gaining control of a novel situation.”

There seems to be a connection between believing in UFOs and in evolution. Darwinians detest the possibility that Earth could be a unique place, a privileged planet.

There is no evidence of any kind of alien life, despite the headlines suggesting otherwise. All reports have been false alarms. (See, for instance here, here and here.)


Saplakoglu, Yasemin. 2018. Is Humanity Ready for the Discovery of Alien Life? Scientific American (16 February).

Monday, 19 February 2018

Clever Ants Ward Off Diseases by Using Antibiotics

The thief ant (Solenopsis molesta) is surprisingly clever. Image courtesy of ,CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Ants have made headlines in the past few days.

First, research showed that they treat injured comrades.

Then a paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science suggested that 60 per cent of ant species examined by researchers at the North Carolina State University used antibiotics to ward off infections.

Researchers already knew that some species of ants produced antimicrobials or “chemical compounds that kill pathogens,” but the results were a big surprise:

“The most potent antimicrobial was produced by one of the smallest ants in the study — Solenopsis molesta, also known as the thief ant — which also lives in some of the smallest colonies,” Live Science reports.

This sounds a lot like intelligent design.

Ants defy Darwinian expectations by harvesting seeds, creating elaborate farming systems, mastering basic mathematics, as well as by building impromptu bridges and living rafts.

Moreover, ants are living fossils that haven’t changed in aeons.


Weisberger, Mindy. 2018. Ant Species Stay Healthy with Self-Made Antibiotics. Live Science (13 February).

Saturday, 17 February 2018

The Odds of Getting Proteins from the Primordial Soup Are Beyond Astronomical, NASA Acknowledges

An artist’s impression of the early Earth. Image courtesy of NASA.

Joel Kontinen

Scientists have previously acknowledged that the origin of proteins is “close to a miracle.”

Yet. without them we wouldn’t have life. An article in Astrobiology Magazine explains this naturalistic dilemma:

Life relies on the intricately folded amino acid chains known as proteins for practically every chemical task. Proteins catalyze chemical reactions throughout the cell, stitch RNA strands together, transport molecules around the cell and control what enters and leaves through the membrane. A modern cell cannot be a cell without them.

Evolution’s enigma is a lot more complex. It has to get DNA, proteins and RNA at the same time.

But according to a naturalistic/materialistic scenario, even getting proteins is practically impossible:

Proteins pose a problem for scientists who study the beginnings of life… They are highly specialized and, compared to most molecules, they are enormous. The odds of such lengthy amino acid chains forming ‘out of the blue’ in life’s primordial soup are beyond astronomical.”

Trying to explain the nigh impossible, Andrew Pohorille, a senior astrobiologist at the NASA Ames Research Center, and colleagues used computer simulations to suggest a potential pathway for producing proteins.

They propose that the earliest protein was a lot smaller and less precise than today’s proteins. They call it the handyman of proteins.

There is absolutely no evidence for the existence of such a protein, however. Life is far too complicated to have arisen through naturalistic means.


Crow, Diana. 2018. ‘Handyman of Proteins’ Got Life Started. Astrobiology Magazine (15 February).

Thursday, 15 February 2018

Ants Treat Injured Comrades, Defying Darwinian Expectations

Image courtesy of Dawidi, CC BY-SA 3.0.B.

Joel Kontinen

We would not expect animals to care for their wounded comrades in a Darwinian world, but in a created world it is no big deal, as God has given animals the intelligence they need for coping in a post-Fall environment.

A new paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B features African Matabele ants (Megaponera analis) that are known for waging wars against other ant colonies. Now, researchers found that they care for the injured, carry them home and even clean their wounds, perhaps with an antibiotic substance to “fend off infections,” as an article in The Guardian puts it.

Ants defy Darwinian expectations by harvesting seeds, creating elaborate farming systems, mastering basic mathematics, building impromptu bridges and living rafts.

Ants are living fossils that haven’t changed in aeons.


Sample, Ian. 2018. ‘Paramedic ants' observed treating injured comrades. The Guardian (14 February).

Tuesday, 13 February 2018

Darwin Day 2018: Wikipedia Receives Censor of the Year Award

Wikipedia is the 2018 Censor of the Year.

Joel Kontinen

On February 12, which happens to be Charles Darwin’s birthday, Discovery Institute grants the Censor of the Year (COTY) award on individuals or organisations, recognising their “outstanding efforts in silencing debate about Darwinian evolution and alternative theories of life's origins.”

Past recipients of the award include Jerry Coyne, Neil deGrasse Tyson, the Commission on the General Conference of the United Methodist Church and the German Natural History Museum.

This year’s award goes to Wikipedia for the erasure of German palaeontologist Günter Bechly, disinformation about intelligent design and the biased treatment it gives to ID scholar Walter Bradley.


Klinghoffer, David. 2018. Happy Darwin Day! Our 2018 Censor of the Year Is Wikipedia. Evolution News & Science Today (12 February).

Sunday, 11 February 2018

Woodpeckers Are a Darwinian Headache

Image courtesy of Sławomir Staszczuk, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Woodpeckers are a Darwinian headache:

A woodpecker hammering away at a tree experiences forces up to 1,400 times that of Earth's gravity, or 1,400 G's. To put that into perspective, humans can withstand about 8 G's of continuous momentum before eventually blacking out, and a sudden application of 50 G's would detach most of our organs. Even relatively small amounts of g-force in people can cause concussion, lingering pain in the neck and back, and red dots on the skin from ruptured capillaries — known as "G-measles" or "geasles" — according to Go Flight Medicine, a website for aviation and medical professionals,” Live Science explains.

Woodpeckers are designed to withstand hard knocks. They have “skulls with spongy layers — particularly in the front regions — that cushion their brains. Robust neck muscles also help to soften the impact, while thick inner eyelids protect their eyes.”

A new study suggests that a protein known as tau might “serve as a protective adaptation, providing a buffer around the birds' neurons that insulates them against harm.

That sounds like intelligent design.

Evolutionists believe that the earliest woodpeckers arrived at least “25 million years” ago, but they could never have survived if their only option was to follow the Darwinian trial-and-error approach.


Weisberger, Mindy. 2018. Does All That Headbanging Leave a Mark on Woodpeckers' Brains? Live Science (5 February).

Thursday, 8 February 2018

Justin Trudeau, Peoplekind and Political Correctness

Image courtesy of Jean-Marc Carisse, CC BY 2.0.

Joel Kontinen

Without the excesses of political correctness, bloggers might have less topics to choose from:

Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau invented the word peoplekind in a recent town hall event in Edmonton, Alberta.

He interrupted a longish comment by a young lady who spoke on the virtue of maternal love as “the love that's going to change the future of mankind."

On hearing this, Mr. Trudeau said, "We like to say peoplekind, not necessarily mankind. It's more inclusive."

It seems that Liberals are having a hard time in using time-honoured words in their proper sense. Think of marriage, for instance.

No wonder then that #peoplekind has been immensely popular on Twitter, and it has inspired a new “political correct” version of space exploration, with Neil Amstrong supposedly saying, “One small step for people, one giant leap for peoplekind”, of people (Nelson peopledela), comic heroes (Batpeople), places (Peoplehattan), fruit (peopledarin oranges) and even a soccer club (Peoplechester United).


BBC News. 2018. Canada PM Trudeau faces PC backlash over 'peoplekind' comment.

LGBT Group Blocks Ken Ham’s University Talk

LGBT people are afraid of this ark. Image courtesy of Jameywiki, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Joel Kontinen

Political correctness can easily lead to behaviour that can rather aptly be described as madness. A recent real life illustration has Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau correcting a lady who used the expression mankind and replacing it by a more gender-neutral though imaginary word peoplekind.

No wonder then that #peoplekind has been immensely popular on Twitter, and Mr. Trudeau’s expression “We like to say peoplekind” has inspired new political correct versions of people (Nelson peopledela), comic heroes (Batpeople), places (Peoplehattan), fruit (peopledarin) and even a soccer club (Peoplechester United).

In the USA, however, the consequences of an all-inclusive policy has led to the suppression of conservative views. Recently, Ken Ham, President of Answers in Genesis-USA – was denied the chance to speak at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) though the presentation had already been approved by the University.

Then, however, a campus LGBT group protested, in fear that Mr. Ham would bring up the biblical view of marriage in his talk.

The censorship of Christian views used to be the norm behind the iron curtain, but until a few decades ago we would hardly have expected to bump into it in the west, where the local peoplekind are increasingly becoming ashamed of their rich Christian heritage.

In contrast, Answers in Genesis is certainly not ashamed of Jesus’ teaching. Its Creation Museum and Ark Encounter park will unashamedly proclaim the biblical truth.


Kanewske, Patrick and Mark Looy. 2018. University Denies Free Speech to Ken Ham and Boots Him from Speaking. Answers in Genesis (6 February).

Monday, 5 February 2018

New Darwinian Tale: US Scientists Engineered a Human-Chimp Hybrid 100 Years Ago

Image courtesy of Delphine Bruyere, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Joel Kontinen

Human exceptionalism is a Darwinian enigma
. Thus, evolutionists are willing to see human traits in animals and animal traits in humans.

At times, their strategy borders on the absurd. A case in point is the rumour that US scientists engineered a human-chimp hybrid in the 1920s in the first primate research centre established in the US in Orange Park, Florida.

According to the rumour, a female chimpanzee was supposedly inseminated with human semen and gave birth to a “humanzee”.

The tale is full of holes, as such a hybrid is biologically impossible, and the details in the story are doubtful as well, as the purported research centre was established in the 1930s, not the 1920s.

No wonder, then, that scientists are not convinced; they rend to believe that the rumour is just a rumour.

The Russian biologist Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov also attempted to produce a human-chimp hybrid, but needless to say, he failed.

Humans are created in the image of God, but apes aren’t so trying to hybridize them is doomed to failure.

All successful hybrids belong to the same Genesis kind.


Dockrill, Peter. 2018. Scientist Claims US Lab Engineered 'Humanzee' Human-Chimp Hybrid 100 Years Ago. Science Alert (31 January).